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          電容器的主要參數

          來源:發布時間:2020-11-26 14:43:49點擊率:

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          Main parameters of capacitors.
          1. When the temperature coefficient changes, the capacity of the temperature capacitor will change slightly, and this characteristic is usually indicated by the temperature coefficient. The temperature coefficient refers to the relative change of capacitor capacity when the temperature changes 1 degree Celsius in a certain temperature range.

           
          2. The nominal capacity and the allowable error nominal capacity are marked on the capacitor. There is a certain error between the actual capacity and the nominal capacity of the capacitor, and the maximum allowable error between the nominal capacity and the actual capacity of the capacitor is called the allowable error of the capacitor. The error between the nominal capacity and the actual capacity of the capacitor reflects the accuracy of the capacitor.


          3. The characteristic that electrical parameters such as capacitance change with the change of the operating frequency of a circuit. If the dielectric material of the capacitor is different, the maximum operating frequency of the capacitor is also different. For example, high-frequency ceramic capacitors or mica capacitors with small capacity need to be used in high-frequency circuits, while capacitors with larger capacity (such as electrolytic capacitors) can only operate normally in low-frequency circuits.


          4. The energy consumed by a dielectric loss capacitor in an electric field is generally expressed by the ratio of the loss power to the reactive power of the capacitor, that is, the tangent of the loss angle. The larger the loss angle, the greater the loss of the capacitor (not suitable for working at high frequency).


          5. The ratio of the voltage added to both ends of the capacitor to the leakage current passing through the capacitor is equal to the insulation resistance of the insulation resistance capacitor. The insulation resistance is related to the dielectric material, area, lead material and length, manufacturing process, temperature and humidity of the capacitor. For capacitors of the same medium, the larger the capacitance is, the smaller the insulation resistance is. The size and change of the insulation resistance of capacitors will affect the working function of electronic equipment, so the larger the insulation resistance of the usual electronic equipment, the better.


          6. Additional operating voltage refers to the capacitor in a certain temperature range, can be connected to the highest point voltage of reliable operation, which is divided into additional DC operating voltage and additional communication operating voltage. The extra operating voltage is related to the medium and ambient temperature used in the capacitor. With different ambient temperature, the maximum operating voltage that the capacitor can accept is also different. When selecting a capacitor, according to the magnitude of its operating voltage, select a capacitor whose additional operating voltage is higher than the actual operating voltage to ensure that the capacitor will not be broken down. The commonly used fixed capacitor operating voltages are 6.3V, 10V, 16V, 25V and so on. The withstand voltage value is usually directly marked on the capacitor, but the withstand voltage of some electrolytic capacitors is color-coded, and the orientation is close to the root of the positive lead line.


          7. The medium of the leakage current capacitor is not absolutely insulated, there will always be some leakage. Usually, the leakage current of electrolytic capacitors is relatively large, while the leakage current of other capacitors is very small. When the leakage current is large, the capacitor will heat up, and when the heat is serious, the capacitor will be damaged.


          電容器的主要參數

          1. 溫度系數 改變溫度電容器容量會發生改變,這種特性通常用溫度系數來表明。溫度系數是指在定溫度范圍內,溫度每改變1攝氏度時電容器容量的相對改變值。

          2. 標稱容量與答應差錯 標稱容量被標志在電容器上。電容器的實容量與標稱容量存在必定的差錯,電容器的標稱容量與實容量的答應大差錯,稱作電容器的答應差錯。電容器的標稱容量與實容量的差錯反映了電容器的精度。

          3. 頻率特性 電容量等電參數跟著電路作業頻率的改變而改變的特性。電容器的介質不一樣,其作業頻率相應的也不一樣。例如,高頻電路中運用容量較小的高頻瓷介電容器或云母電容器等,而容量較大的電容器(如電解電容器)只能在低頻電路中正常作業。

          4. 介質損耗 電容器在電場消耗的能量,一般用損耗功率和電容器的無功功率之比,即損耗角的正切值來表示。損耗角越大,電容器的損耗越大不適于在高頻情況下作業。

          5. 加在電容器兩端的電壓與經過電容器的漏電流的比值等于絕緣電阻電容器的絕緣電阻值。絕緣電阻與電容器的介質材料、面積、引線的料和長短、制作工藝、溫度和濕度等要素有關。同一種介質的電容器,電容量越大,絕緣電阻越小。電容器絕緣電阻的大小變化會影響電子設備的作業功能,所以通常的電子設備,選用絕緣電阻越大越好。

          6. 額外作業電壓是指電容器在一定的溫度范圍內,可以接連牢靠作業的點壓,又分為額外直流作業電壓和額外溝通作業電壓。額外作業電壓的大小與電容器所用介質和環境溫度有關。環境溫度不,電容器能接受的作業電壓也不一樣。選用電容器時,要根據其作業電壓的大小,選擇額外作業電壓大于實作業電壓的電容器,以確保電容器不被擊穿。常用的固定電容作業電壓有6.3V、10V、16V、25V。耐壓值通常直接標在電容器上,但有些電解電容的耐壓采用色標法的,方位接近正極引出線的根部。

          7. 漏電流電容器的介質并不是絕緣的,總會有些漏電。通常電解電容器的漏電流比較大,其他電容器的漏電流很小。當漏電流較大時,電容器會發熱,發熱嚴時,電容器會損壞。

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